Rulesets

Ruleset: HTML4 Legacy Techniques

WCAG 2.0 Level A and AA requirements primarily using HTML4 techniques, but allows HTML5 and ARIA accessibility techniques.

Evaluation of W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 Level A and AA conformance using HTML4 accessibility techniques, but allows for the use of HTML5 and ARIA techniques. ARIA landmarks are NOT required, but if used must follow landmark and sectioning element requirements as outlined in HTML5 and ARIA. The ruleset does NOT require the use of ARIA widget roles for identifying and describing interactive elements (e.g. popup menus, grids, trees, etc…) that cannot be not described by the native semantics of HTML4 and HTML5 form control and link elements. This means the developer will need to do more manual checking and have a high level understanding of assistive technology to describe widgets typically using offscreen text and/or small images (e.g. with ALT text) to define and manage the roles, properties and states of interactive elements.

  • Version: 1.0.0-beta.1
  • Total Rules: 118
  • Required Rules: 77
  • Recommended Rules: 41

Ruleset: HTML5 and ARIA Techniques

WCAG 2.0 Level A and AA requirements using ARIA and HTML5 accessibility features.

Evaluation of W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 Level A and AA conformance using HTML5 and ARIA accessibility techniques. ARIA Landmarks are required for the identification and labeling of the sections of content on a web page. The ruleset requires the use of ARIA widget roles for identifying and describing interactive elements (e.g. popup menus, grids, trees, etc…) that cannot be not described by the native semantics of HTML5 form control and links elements.

  • Version: 1.0.0-beta.1
  • Total Rules: 128
  • Required Rules: 115
  • Recommended Rules: 13

Compare Rulesets

Landmark

Use ARIA landmark roles to structure the content of each page and identify major sections of content, thus making them more findable and navigable. The use of landmarks will, in many cases, reflect the visual styling and page layouts that web designers utilize to set apart various sections of content.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Landmark 1 main landmark: at least one A 2.4.1 - Required
Landmark 10 navigation landmark: restrictions A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 11 main landmark: must be top-level A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 12 contentinfo landmark: must be top-level A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 13 complementary landmark: must be top level A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 14 search landmark: restrictions A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 15 form landmark: restrictions A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 16 region landmark must have accessible name A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 17 Landmarks must be uniquely identifiable A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 18 Landmarks must identify content regions A 1.3.1 Required Required
Landmark 2 All content must be contained in landmarks A 1.3.1 - Required
Landmark 3 navigation landmark: at least one A 2.4.1 - Required
Landmark 4 banner landmark: for branding content A 2.4.1 - Required
Landmark 5 banner landmark: no more than one A 2.4.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 6 contentinfo landmark: for admin content A 2.4.1 - Required
Landmark 7 contentinfo landmark: no more than one A 2.4.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 8 banner landmark: must be top-level A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Landmark 9 banner landmark: restrictions A 1.3.1 Recommended Required

Heading

Use heading elements (H1-H6) to provide appropriate labels for landmarks, and to identify subsections of content within landmarks.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Heading 1 Page must have h1 element A 2.4.1 Recommended Recommended
Heading 2 h1 must be in main or banner landmark AA 2.4.6 Recommended Recommended
Heading 3 Sibling headings must be unique AA 2.4.6 Recommended Recommended
Heading 5 Headings must be properly nested A 1.3.1 Required Required
Heading 6 Headings must have text content A 1.3.1 Recommended Recommended
Heading 7 First landmark heading h2 A 1.3.1 - Recommended
Heading 8 Headings nested in landmarks A 1.3.1 - Required
Role 10 Overriding h1-h6 role semantics A 1.3.1 Recommended Required

Style/Content

Use proper HTML markup to identify the semantics and language of text content. Ensure that text is readable by adhering to color contrast guidelines, and that information is not conveyed solely by the use of color, shape, location or sound.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Color 1 Text must exceed CCR of 4.5 AA 1.4.3 Required Required
Color 2 Use of color A 1.4.1 Required Required
Frame 1 frame must have accessible name A 2.4.1 Required Required
Frame 2 iframe must have accessible name A 2.4.1 Required Required
HTML 1 Replace b and i elements A 4.1.1 Recommended Recommended
HTML 2 Replace marquee elements A 2.3.1 Required Required
Language 1 Page must use language code A 3.1.1 Required Required
Language 2 Identify language changes AA 3.1.2 Required Required
List 1 Use semantic markup for lists A 1.3.1 Required Required
List 2 Provide list labels when appropriate AA 2.4.6 Recommended Recommended
Order 1 Reading order: CSS positioning A 1.3.2 Required Required
Resize 1 Resize text content AA 1.4.4 Required Required
Role 1 main element role semantics. A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 11 li element group item semantics A 4.1.2 Recommended Required
Role 2 body element role semantics. A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 3 ol and ul role grouping semantics A 4.1.2 Recommended Required
Role 4 article element role semantics A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 5 section element role semantics A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 6 Do not override nav element semantics. A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 7 aside element role semantics A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 8 Do not override header element role. A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Role 9 Do not override footer element role. A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Sensory 1 Not only shape, size and location A 1.3.3 Required Required

Image

Provide appropriate text alternatives for static images and graphics.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Image 1 Images must have alt text A 1.1.1 Required Required
Image 2 Alt text must summarize purpose A 1.1.1 Required Required
Image 3 Alt text must not include filename A 1.1.1 Required Required
Image 4 (English) Alt text no more than 100 characters A 1.1.1 Recommended Recommended
Image 5 Verify image is decorative A 1.1.1 Required Required
Image 6 Long description for complex images A 1.1.1 Required Required
Image 7 Use MathML for mathematical expressions A 1.1.1 Required Required

Use link text that properly describes the target of each link. Ensure consistency and uniqueness for links that are usable, predictable and understandable.

Table

Provide table captions or other meta-information as needed. Provide row and column header references for data cells of data tables. Ensure that tables used for layout properly linearize text content.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Layout 1 Layout tables must have meaningful sequence A 1.3.2 Required Required
Layout 2 Do not nest layout tables A 1.3.2 Recommended Recommended
Table 1 Data cells must have row/column headers A 1.3.1 Required Required
Table 2 Data tables must have name AA 2.4.6 Recommended Recommended
Table 3 Data tables must have description A 1.3.1 Recommended Recommended
Table 4 Data tables must have unique names A 1.3.1 Required Required
Table 5 Identify table markup as data or layout A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Table 6 Header cells must be th elements A 1.3.1 Recommended Required
Table 7 Data cells must use headers attribute A 1.3.1 Required Required
Table 8 Name must be different than description A 1.3.1 - Required

Form

Provide meaningful labels for form elements and usable and understandable error feedback as needed.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Control 1 Form controls must have labels A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 10 Labels must be unique AA 2.4.6 Required Required
Control 11 submit and reset buttons must be unique AA 2.4.6 Required Required
Control 2 Image button must have alt. content A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 3 Radio buttons must have grouping label A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 4 buttons must have content A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 5 id must be unique A 4.1.1 Required Required
Control 6 label must reference control A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 7 label must have content A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 8 fieldset must have one legend A 3.3.2 Required Required
Control 9 Verify title is label A 3.3.2 Required Required
Error 1 Information on invalid values A 3.3.1 Required Required
Error 2 Required form controls AA 3.3.3 Required Required
Error 4 Error correction suggestions AA 3.3.3 Required Required
Error 5 Prevent errors AA 3.3.4 Required Required
Focus 4 select must not change context A 3.2.1 Required Required
Focus 5 Forms submitted using buttons A 3.2.2 Required Required

Widget

Use appropriate event handlers on elements to support native interactivity using JavaScript. Ensure that custom widgets created using JavaScript support keyboard interaction and include ARIA markup to describe their roles, properties and states.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Error 3 Required widgets AA 3.3.3 - Required
Widget 1 Widgets must have label A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 10 Value in range A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 11 Keyboard/Mouse/drag events must have roles A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 12 Widget labels must be descriptive AA 2.4.6 Required Required
Widget 2 onClick must have role A 4.1.2 - Required
Widget 3 role must be valid A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 4 ARIA values must be valid A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 5 ARIA attribute must be defined A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 6 Widgets must have properties A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 7 Widgets must have child roles A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 8 Widgets must have parent A 4.1.2 Required Required
Widget 9 Only one owner A 4.1.2 Required Required

Audio/Video

Provide appropriate text transcripts, captions or audio descriptions for elements used in rendering audio and video content.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Audio 1 audio must have alternative. A 1.2.1 Required Required
Audio 2 object for audio must have alternative. A 1.2.1 Required Required
Audio 3 embed for audio must have alternative. A 1.2.1 Required Required
Audio 4 Pause, stop or mute audio A 1.4.2 Required Required
Video 1 video for video only must have alternative A 1.2.1 Required Required
Video 2 object for video only must have alternative A 1.2.1 Required Required
Video 3 embed for video only must have alternative A 1.2.1 Required Required
Video 4 video must have caption A 1.2.2 Required Required
Video 5 object for video must have captions A 1.2.2 Required Required
Video 6 embed for video must have captions A 1.2.2 Required Required
Video 7 video element must have audio description A 1.2.3 Required Required
Video 8 object for video must have audio description A 1.2.3 Required Required
Video 9 embed for video must have audio description A 1.2.3 Required Required

Keyboard

Provide logical and sequential keyboard navigation among interactive elements such as links and form controls. Use standard models of keyboard interaction for custom widgets.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Bypass 1 Skip to main content link A 2.4.1 Recommended Recommended
Focus 1 Focus order must be meaningful A 2.4.3 Required Required
Focus 2 Focus must be visible AA 2.4.7 Required Required
Keyboard 1 Widgets must support keyboard A 2.1.1 Required Required
Keyboard 2 Interactive functionality must be keyboard operable A 2.1.1 Required Required
Keyboard 3 No keyboard trap A 2.1.2 Required Required

Timing

Eliminate accessibility problems caused by time limits on input and by content that moves, scrolls, flashes or auto-updates.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Timing 1 Control time limits A 2.2.1 Required Required
Timing 2 Control moving, blinking or auto-updating content A 2.2.2 Required Required
Timing 3 Flashing limits A 2.3.1 Required Required

Site Navigation

Ensure the consistent labeling and ordering of recurrent page sections across all pages within a website. Provide a meaningful title for each page within a website.

Comparison information on the 0 rules associated with the Rule Category:

Rule ID Rule Summary Level SC HTML4 Techniques HTML5 and ARIA Techniques
Navigation 1 At least two ways of finding content AA 2.4.5 Recommended Required
Navigation 2 Consistent ordering of landmarks AA 3.2.3 Recommended Required
Navigation 3 Consistent ordering of h1 and h2 labels AA 3.2.3 Required Required
Navigation 4 Consistent labeling of landmarks AA 3.2.4 Recommended Required
Navigation 5 Consistent h1 and h2 page section labels AA 3.2.4 Required Required
Title 1 title must identify website and page A 2.4.2 Required Required